Which of the following – complete once the hypothesis

1. Which of the following is true of the scientific method of inquiry?a. complete once the hypothesis has been testedb. will vary depending on the specific research questionc. systematic process that is used to answer questionsd. different in basic research than in applied research2. In true experimental designs, what does research attempt to isolate and control?a. factors not tested that could be responsible for any effects except the onesbeingtestedb. statistics that are used to interpret the resultsc. laboratory conditions to maximize the validity of the experimentd. answers of the people in the study3. What is the major difference between applied and basic research?a. basic research takes longer to completeb. applied research is less importantc. basic research is more traditionald. basic research has no immediate application4. What is another term for basic research?a. real researchb. pure researchc. applied researchd. baseline research5. How many steps are included in the research process?a. 4b. 6c. 8d. 96 Final Examination GRM697 The Research Process 6. What is the most important step in the research process?a. testing the hypothesisb. data collectionc. formulating the hypothesisd. asking the question7. Samantha is interested in studying the relationship between gender differences andverbalability. This is an example of what type of research?a. descriptiveb. correlationalc. quasi-experimentald. gender research8. Ann divides her classes into two groups—a treatment group and a non-treatment group—totest whether her new method of teaching subtraction is better than her old method. Thisis anexample of what type of research?a. historicalb. quasi-experimentalc. correlationald. experimental research9. The scientific method is described in the textbook as _____________.a. restricted to use in correlational researchb. having no immediate application at the time research is completedc. a standard sequence of steps in formulating and answering a questiond. the study of phenomena within the social and cultural context in which theyoccur10. What does a good research question usually pursue?a. a small part of a broad topicb. a topic unrelated to any other topicsc. the same thing as the null hypothesisd. a broad topic11. Which of the following best describes independent variables?a. not manipulated by the experimenterb. manipulated to assess the effect of the treatmentc. unrelated to the treatmentd. not necessary7 Final Examination GRM697 The Research Process 12. Sampling allows researchers to overcome the problem of which of the following?a. overcrowded laboratoriesb. biased subject responsec. not having access to the whole populationd. not having access to the proper statistical methods13. If you read that a study’s finding was significant at the p < .05 level, you couldconcludethat there is a less than 5% probability that ______________.a. the results will translate to real world situationsb. most researchers in that area would consider the finding to have clinicalmeaningc. the researchers used unreliable measuresd. the results were due to chance14. There will be no relationship between children’s time in day care and later academicachievement. This is an example of which of the following?a. a research hypothesisb. a factorial designc. a correlational hypothesisd. a null hypothesis15. A research hypothesis _______________.a. represents an equalityb. is represented by Roman symbolsc. is tested indirectlyd. is implicit16. In testing whether riding a bicycle at least 30 minutes each day reduces weight, whatwouldbe the independent variable?a. the person’s ageb. amount of time bicycling each dayc. the person’s weightd. the person’s diet17. Once information is collected, what is the first step in writing a literature review?a. create a unified theme for the reviewb. build bridges between different areas in the reviewc. work from an outlined. read other literature reviews8 Final Examination GRM697 The Research Process 18. Which is NOT a hint to help you write your literature review?a. create a unified themeb. use a system to organize your materialsc. make sure it is testabled. work from an outline19. A well-written hypothesis _____________.a. creates a unified themeb. reflects a theory or body of literature upon which it is basedc. searches through secondary sourcesd. uses participants in the study who have been used in similar studies20. What does the ethical principle of “sharing benefits” mean?a. all participants in the same study should receive an equal share of the benefitsorsubject paymentsb. all those who belong to the population being studied will share equally from thebenefits the study producesc. the results of studies must be shared with the public so society may benefitfrom theincreased knowledged. all groups involved in a study should eventually be given an opportunity toreceive anytreatments that were found to be effective in the study21. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study is often used as an example of a ____________.a. groundbreaking study using Facebookb. study that did not take into account ethical considerationsc. study guided by the ethical guidelines of the American Medical Association(AMA)d. study that breached confidentiality of participants22. Which is NOT a component of informed consent?a. the purpose of the researchb. who you arec. how the participant can get a copy of the recordsd. a computer simulation of the data 9 Final Examination GRM697 The ResearchProcess 23. Which of the following information should be provided in an informed consent form foranystudy involving human participants?a. the findings of the studyb. the number of participants the study plans to usec. the procedures involved in the studyd. the names of other participants24. Sally selects classrooms of first graders to study the effects of teaching styles onmathachievement. This is an example of _______________.a. stratified random samplingb. cluster samplingc. proportional samplingd. sampling error25. Susan calls every 10th name in the student phone book to ask them to participate inherstudy. This is an example of _______________ sampling.a. simple randomb. systematicc. convenienced. quota26. Sampling error can be defined by which of the following statements?a. increased by increasing sample sizeb. larger as the diversity of sample values becomes smallerc. can be minimized by using simple random samplingd. becomes equal to zero over many samples27. Which of the following statements is true with respect to sample size?a. use small samples when mailing questionnairesb. the greater the number of subgroups of interest to the study, the larger thesamplec. more subjects are always betterd. large samples increase sampling error28. Which of these statements is true regarding cluster sampling?a. one example of a nonprobability sampling methodb. individuals grouped together based on cluster of profile characteristicsc. minimizes the risk of bias due to a heterogeneous populationd. a great time-saver compared to simple random sampling10 Final ExaminationGRM697 The Research Process 29. When might you need a larger sample to represent the population?a. the amount of variability within groups is smallb. the difference between the two groups is smallc. the difference between the two groups is greatd. both a and c30. David asks the first 10 freshmen he sees on campus a series of questions. This is anexample of a ____________ sampling technique.a. quotab. simple randomc. convenienced. proportional stratified31. Which of the following statements is false?a. Validity refers to the results of a test not the test itself.b. Validity progresses from low to high degrees rather than all or none.c. A test can lack validity and still be a reliable measure.d. A test can lack reliability and still be a valid measure.32. What levels of measurement define most variables in behavioral and social scienceresearch?a. interval and ratiob. nominal and ordinalc. nominal and ratiod. nominal and interval33. Which one of the following is NOT an important criterion for increasing reliability?a. eliminate unclear test itemsb. standardize the environmental conditions in which the test is givenc. moderate the ease and difficulty of the testd. use subjective scoring procedures34. Which of the following is an example of method error?a. subject fatigueb. unclear instructionsc. lack of motivationd. bias in grading11 Final Examination GRM697 The Research Process 35. Which is the least frequently established form of reliability?a. inter-raterb. internal consistencyc. test-retestd. parallel36. What are the two types of criterion validity?a. content and construct validityb. content and parallel validityc. predictive and parallel validityd. concurrent and predictive validity37. Dr. Brown finds that results from different methods used to assess the same trait arehighlycorrelated and results from different methods used to assess different traits are notsignificantly correlated. These results demonstrate which two types of validityrespectively?a. predictive and concurrentb. concurrent and predictivec. discriminant and convergentd. convergent and discriminant38. A test that measures knowledge of a specific topic is considered what type of test?a. achievement testb. attitude testc. personality testd. projective test39. Which assessment technique is used in field work?a. Likert scalingb. Thurstone scalingc. observationd. item analysis40. Which of the following is NOT a component of a multiple choice question?a. the stemb. the rootc. distractersd. alternatives 12 Final Examination GRM697 The Research Process 41. Name a multiple choice item which provides a plausible but wrong answer.a. attracterb. alternativec. detractord. distracter42. Which of the following is an example of poor characteristics of a questionnaire?a. Questions are objective and forthright.b. They are accompanied by a cover letter.c. They begin with the more difficult, thought-provoking questions while the readerisstill attentive.d. There is a clear statement of transition when the topic of the questionschanges.43. Which of the following is a reason you need to be cautious when observing behavior?a. Your very presence may affect the behavior being observed.b. The researcher records everything that happens.c. Your questionnaire should not be too long and tedious.d. You may confuse the difficulty index with the discrimination index.44. A good cover letter for a survey questionnaire has all but one of the followingcharacteristicslisted below. Which is NOT a characteristic of a good cover letter?a. The initial questions are relatively simple, nonthreatening and easy-to-answer.b. It is written on official letterhead.c. It promises confidentiality.d. It clearly states the purpose of the questionnaire and the importance of thestudy.45. Which measure would be used to describe how far a test score is from the averagetestscore?a. meanb. modec. mediand. standard deviation46. In a set of scores with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 5, what raw score isrepresented by a z-score of 1.00?a. 30b. 55c. 60d. 20 13 Final Examination GRM697 The Research Process 47. In a set of scores with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15, what raw scoreisrepresented by a z-score of 2.00?a. 115b. 130c. 100d. 7048. In a normal distribution, what percentage of scores fall between the mean and a zscore of+1.00?a. 16%b. 34%c. 50%d. 95%49. What is another phrase used to describe a bell-shaped curve?a. average curveb. regular-shaped curvec. normal curved. elliptical curve50. You are interviewing classmates to find out their political party affiliation. When youpickthe measure of central tendency to use in presenting your results, which should youchoose?a. rangeb. modec. mediand. mean51. When you have ordinal data (such as class rank), which is the best measure of centraltendency to use?a. rangeb. modec. mediand. mean 14 Final Examination GRM697 The Research Process 52. The minimum or maximum value that one would expect the test statistic to yield ifthe nullhypothesis is true is an example of which of the following?a. critical valueb. F valuec. t-test scored. sampling mean53. What can you conclude if the obtained value of a test statistic exceeds the criticalvalue?a. The null hypothesis cannot be rejected.b. You made an error when calculating the test statistic.c. The null hypothesis can be rejected.d. Your obtained value is not statistically significant.54. In order to determine the critical value, which two pieces of information are needed?a. mean and sample sizeb. degrees of freedom and level of significancec. mean and standard deviationd. degrees of freedom and variance55. If Professor Columbo is interested in the general trend of research findings regardinginfantvisual attention and childhood intelligence, what technique would be most amenable tohisinquiry?a. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)b. Meta-analysisc. Multiple Analysis of Variance (MANOVA)d. Factor analysis56. What is the standard metric used in most meta-analytic studies called?a. standard deviationb. effect sizec. sampling meand. standard error57. Which of the following statements regarding statistical significance is FALSE?a. The level of statistical significance and Type I error are the same thing.b. Statistical significance is the degree of risk you are willing to take that you willrejecta null when it is actually true.c. When your results are found to be statistically significant, you can conclude thattheywill have a meaningful effect in the clinic.d. The researcher can determine the level of statistical significance.15 FinalExamination GRM697 The Research Process 58. The first step for conducting a meta-analysis is ____________.a. deciding on an appropriate statistical software packageb. developing a system to code the various dimensions of the studyc. collecting as many studies as possible (or at least a representative group)d. determining the most appropriate type of descriptive or correlational techniquetoexamine the out comes of the studies as a whole59. In a study, the correlation coefficient for W and X is -0.25. The correlation coefficientfor Xand Y is 0.20. The coefficient of determination for X and Z is 0.16. The coefficient ofalienation for Y and Z is 0.90. Which pair of variables has the highest amount of varianceaccounted for?a. X and Yb. X and Zc. Y and Zd. W and X60. Which of the following statements is false?a. A correlation of .8 may be interpreted as weak.b. The higher the correlation is, the larger the “jump” in explained variance.c. A scattergram is a visual representation of a correlation between two variables.d. The absolute value of the correlation coefficient is more important than the +or – sign.61. Survey research would be most appropriate for which of the following researchquestions?a. the relationship between manual dexterity and typing speedb. parents’ attitudes toward sex education in schoolsc. the effectiveness of a weight management program for adolescentsd. the relationship between eye-hand coordination and number of tennis wins62. If you square a correlation coefficient and subtract this number from 1.00, what is theresult?a. the coefficient of alienationb. the coefficient of determinationc. the amount of variance NOT explained by the variance in each variabled. both a and c16 Final Examination GRM697 The Research Process 63. Which of the following could be a potential problem in conducting survey research?a. information is collected over a short period of timeb. producing accurate resultsc. getting a broad picture of what is being studiedd. response rate64. The coefficient of alienation describes the _____________.a. neutral information (such as age, gender, number of children) about the surveyrespondentb. amount of variance that is accounted for in one variable by the other variablec. most frequently used measure of relationships between variablesd. portion of unexplained variance between the tested variables65. “At what age did you start smoking?” is an example of _____________.a. a conventional questionb. an open-ended questionc. a structured questiond. interviewer bias subtly changing the response66. The last step in conducting historical research is _______________.a. interpreting the resultsb. formulating a hypothesisc. defining a topic or problemd. gathering data67. In what situation would the researcher be adjacent to the environment, but NOTactivelyinvolved in the process being studied?a. a focus groupb. participant observationc. direct observationd. an interview68. Which is NOT a main function of focus groups?a. generating insight into previously misunderstood topicsb. in-depth information gathering on one participantc. understanding how group members arrive at their conclusionsd. encouraging group interaction17 Final Examination GRM697 The ResearchProcess 69. Which of the following is NOT characteristic of ethnographic research?a. Ethnographers tend to examine the group or phenomenon as a whole ratherthan thesum of its parts.b. Ethnographers often use participant observation.c. Ethnographers develop a research question prior to initiating their researchmethodsjust as empiri cal researchers do.d. Ethnography is typically very time-consuming.70. Which of the following is an example of a secondary source?a. a photographb. a newspaper story describing an eventc. a contractd. tools71. External criticism, as applied to historical data, is concerned with the ______________ ofthedata.a. carbon datingb. accuracyc. authenticityd. ethnography72. Which of the following is NOT a disadvantage of the case study method?a. It only reflects one reality and that one may reflect researcher bias.b. Generalizability of the findings is limited.c. It cannot establish cause-and-effect links.d. It provides a rich account of what is occurring.73. In an experimental research study, which group does NOT receive treatment?a. control groupb. experimental groupc. research groupd. participants groups18 Final Examination GRM697 The Research Process 74. What is the proper order of the following designs if they are to be listed from the onewiththe least amount of control over variables to the most?a. pretest posttest control group, Solomon four-group, quasi-experimental, onegrouppretest posttestb. one-group pretest posttest, quasi-experimental, pretest posttest control group,Solomon four-groupc. one-group pretest posttest, pretest posttest control group, Solomon four-group,quasi-experimentald. quasi-experimental, one-group pretest posttest, pretest posttest control group,Solomon four-group75. True experimental designs are NOT characterized by ______________.a. random selection from the populationb. random assignment to different groupsc. control groupsd. descriptive statistics76. To what does the term internal validity refer?a. the degree to which results of a study can be generalized from one sample toanotherb. the process of subject selectionc. the development of a treatmentd. the degree to which the results of a study can be attributed to the manipulationof theindependent variable77. Susan has twelve subjects drop out of her study. Which threat to internal validity mustsheconsider?a. mortalityb. historyc. selectiond. randomization78. Many researchers devise “sham” treatments for their control groups to undergo,meaningthat the control group interacts with researchers in some way that is not thought toimpactthe dependent variable or the outcome. This is done to weaken the argument that thetreatment group improvement may have occurred in part simply due to the attention thisgroup received from the researchers. These researchers are attempting to control forwhich of the following?a. multiple treatment interferenceb. the Hawthorne effectc. selectiond. experimenter effects19 Final Examination GRM697 The Research Process 79. Which experimental design involves one experimental group and three controlgroups?a. Solomon four-group designb. pretest posttest control group designc. posttest only control group designd. quasi-experimental design80. Why use nonequivalent control group design?a. less costb. less time involvedc. easier trainingd. because you cannot assign subjects to groups81. In what design is the cause-and-effect argument strongest?a. experimental designb. quasi-experimental designc. pre-experimental designd. correlational design82. In quasi-experimental research, when will the cause of differences between groupsoccur?a. during the experimentb. after the experimentc. it has already occurredd. it will never occur83. Compared to longitudinal studies, cross-sectional studies ______________.a. are much less expensiveb. have better comparability of groupsc. have higher mortality ratesd. cost the same84. If you want to answer a research question regarding whether a particular group ofsubjectsexperiences any significant changes in behavior as they age but you do not have the timeormoney for a traditional longitudinal study, which method would be acceptable?a. cross-sectionalb. historicalc. follow-upd. None of the above would be acceptable.20 Final Examination GRM697 TheResearch Process 85. Which quasi-experimental design is the one most often used?a. pretest posttest control group designb. multiple baseline designc. nonequivalent control group designd. static group comparison design86. Single subject designs are useful because they ____________.a. allow for an in-depth examination of specific behaviorsb. are used when the behavior on which the researcher is focusing is not very welldefined in opera tional termsc. allow for random assignment of participants into groupsd. have no threats to internal validity87. When reviewing the problem and purpose sections of a research article, which of thefollowing questions would be pertinent?a. Is the review recent?b. Are the hypotheses clearly stated?c. Are the results related to the hypotheses?d. Is the objective of the study clearly stated?88. Which is NOT a primary area to evaluate when judging a research report?a. the hypothesisb. the answerc. the problem and purposed. references89. When selecting a dependent variable, you should consider all of the following EXCEPT:a. the measure has been used before.b. the validity of the measure has been established.c. the measure comes with testing forms.d. norms are available, when applicable.90. In a research proposal, what should follow the literature review section?a. appendicesb. literature reviewc. implications and limitationsd. method21 Final Examination GRM697 The Research Process 91. In a research proposal, what should follow the implications and limitations section?a. appendicesb. literature reviewc. implications and limitationsd. method92. Which section of the proposal contains information on the instrumentation used?a. introductionb. methodc. implications and limitationsd. literature review93. What is the shortened title which appears at the top of each proposal page called?a. an abstractb. a running headc. an introductiond. a reference94. Which section of a manuscript discusses the reliability of any tests that were used?a. introductionb. methodsc. resultsd. discussion95. Which section of a manuscript discusses how the study was conducted?a. introductionb. abstractc. resultsd. method96. Which is a subsection found in the method section?a. introductionb. running headc. resultsd. data analysis22 Final Examination GRM697 The Research Process 97. What type of information may be contained in the appendices of a manuscript?a. original datab. author’s notesc. referencesd. both a and c98. The hypothesis is most likely to appear at the end of which section of a manuscript?a. introductionb. methodsc. resultsd. references99. What guidelines do most journals in the social and behavioral sciences follow?a. Index Medicusb. American Psychological Associationc. Society of Psychiatric Journalsd. Modern Language Association100. What material is included in the abstract?a. a one-sentence statement of the purposeb. tables showing resultsc. a list of sources that were consulted during the researchd. discussion of the important relationships between past research, the purpose ofthecurrent study, the hypothesis and the results of the study

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