WQUESTION 1Psychologists use the term personality mainly to refer to characteristics and behaviors thata.stem from conscious intentions.b.show little variability across persons.c.are relatively easy to observe and measure.d.are relatively stable across time and circumstances.QUESTION 2Our memories, beliefs, and generalizations about the self are integrated to make up oura.self-schema.b.working self-concept.c.self-esteem.d.sociometer.QUESTION 3Bruno is typically shy, likes working on computers, and tends to worry about the future. Bruno’s many unchanging characteristics across time and situations are referred to as hisa.ego.b.self-schema.c.working self-concept.d.personality.QUESTION 4The cognitive structure that helps us perceive, organize, interpret, and use information about ourselves is called oura.sociometer.b.working self-concept.c.self-esteem.d.self-schema.QUESTION 5Which of the following concepts is most clearly related to reflected appraisal?a.self-knowledgeb.working self-conceptc.self-schemad.self-esteemQUESTION 6Our ability to fulfill our potential through greater self-understanding is part of the ________ approach to personality.a.social cognitiveb.traitc.humanisticd.psychodynamicQUESTION 7Which of the following is NOT a psychosexual stage of development?a.phallicb.erogenousc.latencyd.oralQUESTION 8According to the psychodynamic approach, children feel unconscious impulses toward their parents of the opposite sex during the ________ stage of psychosexual development.a.oralb.genitalc.anald.phallicQUESTION 9Freud thought that anxiety resulted from conflict between ________ and ________.a.the oral stage; the anal stageb.repression; rationalizationc.the preconscious; the unconsciousd.the id; the superegoQUESTION 10Tyra is tall and very thin and appears to be anorexic. She justifies her weight by saying that she is small boned. Tyra’s sensible excuse for her eating habits is an example of the ________ defense mechanism.a.projectionb.denialc.rationalizationd.displacementQUESTION 11Josh is not worried that his newborn baby seems easily frightened. He tells his wife, “His personality will develop later, as a pattern of learned thinking.” Josh believes in the ________ approach to personality.a.traitb.psychodynamicc.social cognitived.humanisticQUESTION 13Ryan’s sister is visiting for Thanksgiving. She always gets on Ryan’s nerves, and this year is no exception. While walking the dog after dinner, Ryan may reveal this conflict unconsciously by being strict with the dog. Ryan’s behavior is best explained by the ________ defense mechanism.a.rationalizationb.projectionc.displacementd.reaction formationQUESTION 14Raj is unconsciously attracted to his best friend’s wife, Bernadette. But consciously, whenever Raj talks about Bernadette, he says how dumb and ugly she is. This example best demonstrates the ________ defense mechanism.a.sublimationb.displacementc.reaction formationd.projectionQUESTION 15Anita takes a personality test online. The results say she is high on the extraversion dimension of personality and she is likely to be assertive and energetic. The online personality test most likely used the ________ approach to personality.a.social cognitiveb.humanisticc.traitd.psychodynamicQUESTION 16Katie is very particular. She likes her apartment to be overly organized and things have to be done correctly or she gets upset. According to psychodynamic theory, Katie is most likely fixated at the ________ phase of psychosexual development.a.analb.genitalc.phallicd.oralQUESTION 17Andy’s id is a very dominant force in his personality. Which of the following is Andy most likely to do?a.follow his impulses when making decisionsb.resolve conflicts in a peaceful wayc.act calmly around strangersd.feel embarrassed even if he has done nothing wrongQUESTION 18When Phia’s boss tells her that she is lazy and needs to work harder, Phia smiles and nods politely. That night, she screams at her husband, Eric, for burning the steaks. Phia’s behavior most likely is a result of the defense mechanism ofa.denial.b.displacement.c.sublimation.d.repression.QUESTION 19Charlotte is excessively needy and smokes cigarettes constantly to ease her anxiety. According to the psychodynamic theory of personality, Charlotte may be fixated at the ________ stage of psychosocial development.a.phallicb.genitalc.anald.oralQUESTION 20Dr. Carl is a humanistic psychologist studying personality. Which of the following statements is he most likely to say?a.“Personality is influenced by a person’s uniqueness, growth, and self-understanding.”b.“Personality can be described by our personal characteristics.”c.“Personality is based on a person’s unconscious wishes and conflicts.”d.“Personality is based on how we think, our expectancies, and our values.”QUESTION 21Derek’s dad demands that Derek play catch with him. When Derek drops the ball, his dad tells him that he is useless unless he can be a good athlete. According to humanistic approaches to personality, Derek’s dad is creating ________ for his son.a.unconscious conflictsb.self-actualizationc.low self-esteemd.conditions of worthQUESTION 22Betty is making a mud pie out of dirt she brought in from the backyard. When her mother sees it, she yells, “Stop it. Good girls do not play with dirt and mud.” According to humanistic approaches to personality, Betty’s mom is creating ________ for her daughter.a.conditions of worthb.unconditional positive regardc.unconscious conflictsd.self-actualizationQUESTION 23Greg is a parent who wants to apply a person-centered approach to raising his son Isaac. Which of the following things should Greg do?a.He should emphasize Isaac’s responsibility for his failures.b.He should withhold treats and gifts to reinforce his rules.c.He should love and support Isaac no matter how he behaves.d.He should teach Isaac defense mechanisms to relieve his internal conflicts.QUESTION 24Which of the following traits is NOT part of the five-factor theory of personality?a.neuroticismb.introversionc.openness to experienced.agreeablenessQUESTION 25In the five-factor theory, the trait of neuroticism is similar to the dimension of ________ in Eysenck’s biological trait theory.a.constraintb.extraversionc.psychoticismd.stabilityQUESTION 26Phoebe is an inventor who is creative and good at using everyday items in unusual ways. According to the Big Five model of personality, Phoebe most likely would be high ina.conscientiousness.b.neuroticism.c.agreeableness.d.openness to experience.QUESTION 27Sheldon and Amy met on an online dating site. Sheldon describes himself as stubborn, competitive, and argumentative. According to the Big Five trait theory, Sheldon is most likelya.low in extraversion.b.high in conscientiousness.c.high in neuroticism.d.low in agreeableness.QUESTION 28Brad and Gloria met on an online dating site. Gloria describes herself as secure, calm in stressful situations, and rarely angry. According to the Big Five trait theory, Gloria is most likelya.low in extraversion.b.low in neuroticism.c.high in openness.d.high in conscientiousness.