Victim Precipitation TheoryVictim Precipitation Theory discusses how a victim can actively or passively play a role in the crime itself. Conduct an internet search for a current (less than two years old) case or article about a crime victim. In a well-constructed, one page essay (500+ words), discuss how the victim either actively or passively participated in the crime.(NOTE: A “well-constructed” essay will be in complete sentences and paragraphs. It will be structured to include an introduction, body, and conclusion. While APA references and citations are not required for this course, they are strongly suggested since they will be required in future courses. Also, you must at least attempt to provide citation and reference information for any specific information that you use that is not your own thoughts in order to avoid plagiarism.)NO PLAGIARISM PLEASEVictims of CrimeVictimologists, or criminologists who specialize in learning about victims, used to thinkthat victims were simply at the right place at the wrong time, and fell victim to anoffender’s rage and greed. The study of victimology has changed this idea amongcriminologists and several victimization theories have developed. It is now an acceptedbelief that the victim, often unknowingly, plays a role in the crime itself.There are many costs involved in crime and also in dealing with victims. Not only arethere costs involved with what the victim lost (if it was tangible property), but also costsinvolved in the legal and penal system by prosecuting and punishing the offender, aswell as any medical costs if the victim has been injured. There are also individual coststo the victims, who may have lost wages from missing work during their recovery aswell as the trial of the offender, and there are emotional costs as well, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), adolescent stress, relationship stress, and fear.Victimology studies have shown that overall, violent crimes are more likely to take placeduring the day or evening, in open, public areas or commercial establishments. Moreserious crimes, such as rape, occur after 6p.m., and less serious crimes like larcenyoccur during the day. Also, males are more likely (other than rape or sexual assault) tobe victims than females are, and younger people are more likely to be victims thanolder people. The poor are more likely to be victims of violent crimes, where the wealthyare more likely to be victims of property theft. Single people are more likely to bevictims than married people, and victims are more likely to be victimized again thanthose who have never been a victim. If you think about why, this makes sense. If youaren’t sure you agree, maybe you will after considering the victimization theories.Victim precipitation theory discusses that victims play a role in the crime itself. In activeparticipation, a victim provokes the offender, using fighting words or even attacks first,then suffers as a result. Passive participation is where the victim unknowingly doessomething to provoke their attacker. Either way, they have done something, intentionalor not, to offend, threaten, or engage the attacker.The lifestyle theory suggest that people engage in high-risk lifestyles and putthemselves at risk for becoming an offender. This may be because they are out drinking,or in college, or even join a gang. Whatever it is they are doing in their life, it isincreasing their risk of becoming a victim. Typically, single people are in college, or gangs, etc., and married people tend to settle down. This is why statistics show that youare less likely to be a victim if you are married.In the deviant places theory, victims do not encourage the crime but are prone to beingvictims because of the location they are in. If they reside in a poor part of a large city,they are likely to be around more crime, and therefore likely to be a victim. Whereassomeone living in the suburbs, or even the country may be less likely to be a victim ofcrime simply because of their location.The routine activities theory depends on three things: the availability of suitable targets,the absence of guardians, and the presence of offenders. Often times, routine activityand lifestyle theories go hand-in-hand, and overlap quite a bit.While people may not consciously be trying to become a victim, they may unknowinglyplace themselves at higher risk. One should make efforts to avoid becoming a victim, itat all possible. If not though, there are several things that can be done to ease thevictim’s suffering. Obviously there is punishment of the offender, but there are alsovictim compensation and assistance programs including money to cover medical bills,loss of wages, etc., there are therapy, counseling, and education programs, as well asthe witness-protection program, and victims’ advocates to assist victims in locatingservices as well as fighting for their rights.ReferencesSiegel, L. J. (2015). Criminology: The core, (5th ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.