Running head: CRIMINAL INJUSTICE IN THE UNITED STATES Criminal Injustice in the United States: The Case of Minority GroupsMCJ 5532February 8, 2016 The Injustice system and how it affects the minority groups in the United States 1 CRIMINAL INJUSTICE IN THE UNITED STATES 2 IntroductionAfter Emancipation Proclamation, one hundred and fifty years later, the statistics fromthe progress made by the minority groups in the United States is undeniable as stated by (Boothand Seligson) In contrast, the statics about the number of minority groups that are incarcerationis, however, alarming. From the 2011 statistics, it is evidenced that the number of minoritygroups that were in prison at that time or rather “under the watch” of the justice system was morethat that enslaved in the year 1850 within the United States. The essay survey sets out to studysome of the minority groups (African-Americans and Latinas). The findings are to be comparedwith what the native-Americans are being subjected. In the course of the discussion, fewquestions are asked to pose key elements that shall shape the course of the study.African-Americans and the Criminal Injustice systemThere is a claim among the majority that racism within the United States ended with theCivil Rights Movement of the 1960’s. What is contradicting, however, is the fact that the legaciesof slavery that dominated U.S in the past still continue to affect the U.S society to alarminglevels. There are disproportionate levels of imprisonment of the African-Americans that is fueledby being robbed the fundamental civil rights, imprisonment by the racist drug laws and denial toaccess of educational and economic benefits that are obtained by the majority of the AngloAmericans.The criminal justice system in the U.S is therefore highly influenced by racism. Theresulting criminal injustice system results in a probability of one out of the four AfricanAmerican residents going to prison compared to one out of 23 for the whites.Latinas and the Criminal Injustice System CRIMINAL INJUSTICE IN THE UNITED STATES 3 The Latinas represent one of the most rapidly growing minorities within the UnitedStates. It can also be noted they form one of the most formidable social and political class.Despite the fact that their influence has grown in the southwestern United States, they are stilltreated as foreigners and outsiders by much of America. Racist, anti-Latina statements can beheard in the majority of the public statements, legislation process in making key policies and inthe political rhetoric. The high levels of discrimination and mistreatment have raisedfundamental concerns among the residents as observed by Booth and Seligson (2005). TheLatina residents are plagued by different issues that include unemployment, poverty and minimaleducation opportunities.Native-Americans and the Criminal Injustice SystemThere is still a fevered paced incessant racism that once destroyed the native-Americanpopulations. The current case is that majority of the native-Americans are facing high rates ofunemployment as well as decline levels of life expectancy when compared to the nationalaverage (“Punishment And Inequality In America”). The conditions are unwelcome whencompared to the financial capabilities of the U.S as well as milestones the country is to make inissues to do with human rights. Correctional supervision of native-Americans has been pegged attwice compared to whites that are once. Continued supervision of the natives has been enhancedby the criminal injustice system in place.Survey questions1) Why are a disproportionate number of African-Americans incarcerated by the America’scriminal justice system?2) Why the disproportionate benefits by the African-Americans as compared to the whites? CRIMINAL INJUSTICE IN THE UNITED STATES 4 3) Why are a majority of “aliens” (92%) apprehended by the INS (Immigration andNaturalization Service)?4) Why does the statistics by the INS indicate that only 54% are arrested in contrast of the92%?5) Why do 24% of African-Americans not graduated from college who are above 25 yearsas compared to 16% of whites6) Why is the life expectancy of the native-Americans below that of the whites by fiveyears?7) Why do a large proportion of the native-Americans (34%) live below the poverty linecompared to 16% of the whites?8) What is the proportion of crime subjected to the different groups within the U.S?9) What is the proportion of the drug users as per the identified classes of groups above?10) Are the laws repressive to the minority groups within the U.S as claimed? Research methodologyThe study will employ the use of a case study approach rather than making a sweepingstatistical survey. A detailed contextual analysis of a few issues and the existing relationshipsshall make it possible for getting the vivid details of the study according to the provisions byJohnston (2011). The study shall be based on a choice of three states that shall be chosen bypurposive sampling, and the states shall have the above-stated groups. There shall be a collectionof both primary and secondary data. Primary data shall be gathered through the use of CRIMINAL INJUSTICE IN THE UNITED STATESquestionnaires, and personal interviews shall also be used. The interviews also make it possiblefor getting data from those who cannot interpret the questionnaires.Purposive sampling is the non-probability type of sampling that makes it possible forgathering the characteristics of interest from the population. The particular type of sampling thatshall be used is homogenous sampling where people will be identified as having the specifictraits for the study and the questionnaires administered. The respondents shall be assured of thehighest level of privacy with the information they provide. References”Punishment And Inequality In America”. Choice Reviews Online 44.07 (2007): 44-4178-444178.Booth, J. A., and M. A. Seligson. “Political Legitimacy And Participation In Costa Rica:Evidence Of Arena Shopping”. Political Research Quarterly 58.4 (2005): 537-550. 5 CRIMINAL INJUSTICE IN THE UNITED STATES 6 Johnston, Brenda. “Action Research In Teaching And Learning: A Practical Guide To ConductingPedagogical Research In Universities”. Journal of Further and Higher Education 34.3(2010): 467-473. Professor Feedback:You need to describe in detail your data collection process for the surveys and the interviews.You also need to discuss how you will secure the data during the collection and analysisprocess and how you will destroy the data at the conclusion of the study.