PHIL.2306 WRITING ASSIGNMENT GRADING RUBRICSCriteriaMechanics Organization Content of answer Performance IndicatorsMeets ExpectationsExceptional5 points (Less than 3 10 points (Nogrammatical, spelling grammatical, spellingor punctuationor punctuation errors)errors.)15 points (The answer 20 points (Ideas are30 points (The paperrambles and the ideas clearly stated, butis well-organized andare disorganized)there is no clearflows smoothly)organizationalstructure)35 points (The answer 45 points (The60 points (Thewasanswer wasanswer wasincomplete. Parts ofsubstantiallycomplete. Allthe question werecomplete and someelements of theunanswered and nosources were cited)question wereresources were cited)answered and allsources were cited.Out of 100 pointsNeeds Improvement0 points (More than 6grammatical, spellingor punctuation errors) Common ErrorsBelow is a list of errors commonly found in student writing.[i] The list begins with the mostegregious errors, which are problems with sentence structure, and continues to minor issues suchas capitalization and punctuation, which student writers often identify and correct if theycarefully proofread their work.(This list is based on Andrea Lunsford’s list of top twenty errors in student writing as printedin Easy Writer 4th edition, Bedford, 2010. Although Lunsford’s list is organized by mostcommonly occurring errors, this list has been restructured to emphasize the more serious errors.)Sentence-Structure Errors· Fused sentences (also called run-on sentences)· Comma splices· Fragments· Awkward/Confusing sentencesDocumentation Errors· Missing documentation· Incomplete documentationErrors Involving Verbs · Subject-verb agreement errors· Tense shiftsErrors Involving Pronouns· Unclear pronoun reference· Pronoun-antecedent agreement errorProofreading Issues· Wrong word errors/word choice errors· Spelling errors· Missing words or extra words· Capitalization errors· Punctuation errors· Typos Sentence Structure ErrorsThese errors occur when independent and dependent clauses are incorrectly combined.Fused Sentences (Run-ons)A fused sentence incorrectly joins clauses that could each stand alone as a separatesentence. To correct fused sentences, a writer must divide the information into separatesentences or provide additional words and/or punctuation to correctly link the clauses.Fused: I wanted grilled cheese sandwiches for dinner I didn’t have any bread.Corrected: I wanted grilled cheese sandwiches for dinner, but I didn’t have anybread.Comma SplicesComma splices also incorrectly join clauses that could stand alone. In this case, theclauses are joined by only a comma, but other words or punctuation are required….ma Splice: I wanted grilled cheese sandwiches for dinner, I went to the storeto buy bread.Corrected: I wanted grilled cheese sandwiches for dinner, so I went to the store tobuy bread.FragmentsA fragment is part of a sentence written as if it were a complete sentence.Fragment: We waited in line for nine hours. Because we wanted to buy ticketsfor the concert.Corrected: We waited in line for nine hours because we wanted to buy tickets forthe concert.Awkward or Confusing SentencesA sentence that starts out with one kind of structure and then changes to another kind canconfuse readers. These sentences often lack parallel structure, contain shifts in verb tense,and contain subject-verb agreement errors. They need to be revised for clarity. Confusing: The information which high school athletes should be presented withmainly includes information about what credits they needed to graduate andthinking about the college which athletes are trying to play for and apply.Corrected: High school athletes should receive information about what creditsthey need to graduate, which colleges to try to play for, and how to apply.Documentation ErrorsIf a writing assignment requires to student to use research sources, those sources should beclearly and consistently documented. To assess a student writing sample, readers do not need tobe thoroughly familiar with the documentation style (such as MLA or APA). However, eachreader should be able to identify inconsistencies and able to identify quotations or paraphrasesthat do not properly credit the original author.Incomplete DocumentationThis example follows MLA style.Incomplete Documentation: Smith writes, “I arrived in Texas at the beginning ofJune.”Corrected: Smith writes, “I arrived in Texas at the beginning of June” (678).Incomplete DocumentationThis example follows MLA style.Missing Documentation: According to one source, James Joyce wrote two of thefive best novels of all time.Corrected: According to one source, James Joyce wrote two of the five bestnovels of all time (“100 Best”).Errors Involving VerbsCommon errors in student writing include problems with subject-verb agreement andunnecessary shifts in verb tense.Subject-Verb AgreementVerbs must agree with their subjects in number (singular or plural) and in person (firstperson, second-person, third-person).Agreement Error: A backpack, a canteen, and a rifle was issued to each soldier.Corrected: A backpack, a canteen, and a rifle were issued to each soldier.Tense ShiftWhen a passage changes verb tenses (from past tense to present tense, for example), theshift should occur for a logical reason. Unnecessary shifts can confuse readersTense Shift: Susie was watching the parade. Then she slips and falls.Corrected: Susie was watching the parade. Then she slipped and fell.Errors Involving PronounsCommon errors in student writing include pronouns that do not clearly refer to another word inthe sentence and pronouns that do not agree with the words they refer to. Unclear Pronoun ReferenceA pronoun should refer clearly to the word or words it replaces (called the antecedent). Ifa pronoun could refer to more than one word, the sentence needs to be revised for clarity.Unclear: The accountant used a calculator to figure the tax return. Then he put itin his briefcase.· “It” could refer to either the return or the calculator.Corrected: The accountant used a calculator to figure the tax return. Then he putthe return in his briefcase.Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement ErrorPronouns must agree with their antecedent in gender (male or female) and in number(singular and plural).Agreement Error: Every student must wear their uniforms to the assembly.Corrected: Every student must wear his or her uniform to the assembly.Corrected: All students must wear their uniforms to the assembly.Proofreading IssuesMinor errors such as misspelled words, missing or misplaced punctuation, and word choiceerrors can confuse readers especially if the piece of writing contains many such errors. In studentwriting, some of the most common minor errors are· Wrong word errors/word choice errors· Spelling errors· Missing words or extra words· Capitalization errors· Punctuation errors· TyposMinor errors, when they are persistent within an essay, interfere with clear communication.When assessing student writing samples, the readers do not need to count each minor error as aseparate offense that lowers the score again and again. However, patterns of error – such asseveral capitalization errors on a page or a series of word-choice errors within in a paragraph –should lower the score because repeated errors interfere with the reader’s ability to understandthe essence of the paper.