CJ415-final exam-The ________ hypothesis regarding crime argues that

The ________ hypothesis regarding crime argues that as a country undergoes economic development,its crime rate increases.slippery slopeglobalizationmodernizationtransnational crime2 pointsQuestion 2 Generally, the police forces of any given country are much more likely to be dealing with ___________crime and much less likely, if ever, to be dealing with _________ crime.transnational, internationalinternational, transnationalnational, globalorganized, international2 pointsQuestion 3 Offenses, whose inception, prevention, and/or direct or indirect effects involved more than one countryis an example of:internationaltransnationalglobal world2 pointsQuestion 4 The process used by criminals to convert funds acquired illegally into what appears to be legitimateincome that can the used for legal purposes such as investment and purchase, is an example of:bank frauddrug traffickingmoney launderingcorruption2 pointsQuestion 5 The movement of mood altering substances from their points of origin to their points of consumption isan example of:drug traffickingdrug launderingdrug distributioncorruption2 pointsQuestion 6 Although not in itself a crime, buying a legal business may be deemed ________, if it is used a means forlaundering money that may have been acquired illegally. criminalillegalunethicalmorally wrong2 pointsQuestion 7 _______ crimes call for a great deal of ingenuity and versatility on the part of law enforcement in termsof learning, investigation, and prevention.sexcyberdrugvictimless2 pointsQuestion 8 Most victims of __________ theft are likely to be looking for recompense, and not criminal punishment,and therefore, not generally likely to involve police agencies.identityintellectual propertypropertyvehicle2 points Question 9 ____________ may be localized or may operate transnationally.drug traffickingillegal arms salesterrorismidentity theft2 pointsQuestion 10 The illegal commandeering of ________ for the purpose of either demanding ransom payments or formaking a political statement has been a feature of much of the late twentieth century.watercrafttrainssubway carsairplanes2 pointsQuestion 11 _____________ is an age-old offense, which is considered the first to result in multinational cooperativelaw enforcement efforts continues to exist in certain parts of the world, particularly in and aroundCentral and South America, Southeast Asia, and West Africa.aircraft hijackingsea piracy terrorismtreason2 pointsQuestion 12 ___________ is defined as the procurement of illegal entry of a person into a state of which the latterperson is not a national with the objective of making a profit.illegal immigrationprostitutionhuman smugglingspying2 pointsQuestion 13 Transnational ____________ crime is a fact of contemporary life.drugenvironmentalillegal armsterrorism2 pointsQuestion 14 Over the past 20 years, there has been a growing preoccupation with ____________ crime. transnationaldruggangorganized2 pointsQuestion 15 The most discussed and least understood international police organization in the world is:EUROPOLCIAINTERPOLBATFE2 pointsQuestion 16 The _________ by the police can be defined as occurring “any time the police attempt to have citizensact in a certain way.”brutalityuse of forceauthoritycorruption2 points Question 17 Incidents of police use of excessive force have included all except:deliberate chokingbeating civil rights protestershandcuffingdeliberate kicking2 pointsQuestion 18 The philosophy of __________ police officers in which the police subculture becomes a way of life canthus lead to police misconduct.brother and sisterus vs. themwe have the powerI am the law2 pointsQuestion 19 In the twentieth century, the United States Supreme Court, to protect citizens from governmental abusesfrom the states and their agents, extended the Bill of Rights to be applicable to the _____.policelocal governments statespeople2 pointsQuestion 20 The police __________ is an extreme version of a phenomenon that exists in many human groups.subculturethin blue linecorruptioncode of silence2 pointsQuestion 21 Many people, specifically _________, believe that the police are often engaged in excessive andunnecessary physical force.government officialsminority groupsolder citizensyouth2 pointsQuestion 22 Some forms of police brutality have also been referred to as _________. the third degreethrowing the book at themhazingus vs. them2 pointsQuestion 23 What made the King-beating incident significantly different from earlier alleged incidents of policebrutality was that a private citizen __________ this incident.videotapedreportedhelped officers inhelped King in2 pointsQuestion 24 The police can trace their authority to use _______ back to the Common Law of England, which wasdeveloped during the Middle Ages.less than lethalforcedeadly forceweapons2 points Question 25 In 1986, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down the fleeing felon rule, which allowed police officers to usedeadly force, i.e., to shoot to kill a suspect escaping from the scene of a crime. This historical case is:Brandenburg v. OhioTennessee v. GardnerMiranda v. ArizonaMapp v. Ohio2 pointsQuestion 26 Dysfunctional behavior such as police violence comes about when looking at police brutality from a___________ perspective.conflict theoristfunctionalistinteractionistemergent theorist2 pointsQuestion 27 The __________ perspective takes a critical stance and believes that the police represent the group thathas power, prestige, and wealth in a given society.interactionistfundamentalist conflictdemocratic2 pointsQuestion 28 From a ____________ perspective, a lot of attention would be devoted to considering the nature andmeanings of acts that are defined as police brutality or excessive use of force.conflictinteractionistfunctionalistclassical2 pointsQuestion 29 Based on a perceived increase in police violence, a ___________________ was established by the Israelipolice in 1992.civilian complaint boardcommission of law enforcement abusezero tolerance policylaw prohibiting excessive force2 pointsQuestion 30 One whose members, because of physical or cultural characteristics, are disadvantaged and subjected tounequal treatment by the dominant group and who regard themselves as objects of collectivediscrimination is the definition of a:subordinate groupsubcultureparent groupdominant group2 pointsQuestion 31 A __________ group is one that is advantaged and has superior resources and rights in a society.suburbanitesubdominatefocus2 pointsQuestion 32 __________ refers to an attitude that evaluates an individual member of a subordinate group negativelyon the basis of certain negative characteristics that are associated with that group even if the individualdoes not conform to those expected characteristics.racismprejudice racial profilingethnic bias2 pointsQuestion 33 One who harbors negative attitudes toward any particular subordinate group and will act negativelytoward them can be referred to as a:unprejudiced nondiscriminatorapartheidprejudiced discriminatorsubordinate group2 pointsQuestion 34 The most common pattern, based on perceived biological differences such as skin color, complexion, haircolor, and or eye color is referred to as _________.racismprejudiced discriminatorethnic biassexism2 pointsQuestion 35 Prejudice and discrimination that is based on cultural differences among groups, sometimes even if theyare of the same race is the definition of:racial profilingethnic biasprejudicediscrimination2 pointsQuestion 36 The pattern of prejudice and discrimination that negatively targets either the young or the elderly isknown as:discriminationethnic biasapartheidageism2 pointsQuestion 37 __________ is defined as a fairly rigid, oversimplified view or image of a particular social group that isthen applied to individuals who belong to that group.ageismstereotypingheterosexism ethnic bias2 pointsQuestion 38 A process by which members of subordinate groups are blamed for the problems and frustrationsexperienced by members of the dominant group is an example of:scapegoatingstereotypingethnic biascultural diversity2 pointsQuestion 39 Societies that are made up of more than one ethnic group are referred to as:dominate societiesdiverse societiesplural societiesmulticultural societies2 pointsQuestion 40 When women are treated less harshly than male suspects by the police and the criminal justice systemgiven traditional gender expectations and notions of them being the “weaker sex”, we are defining: sexismchivalry hypothesisstereotypingsexual bias2 pointsQuestion 41 Conduct which the people of a group are considered so dangerous or embarrassing or irritating that theybring special sanctions to bear against the persons who exhibit it is an example of:deviancepolice misconductuse of forcecorruption2 pointsQuestion 42 _____________ is when individuals who happen to be in the police force engage in activities that violatedepartmental policies, laws, and social norms and misuse the powers of their office.corruptionoccupational deviancedevianceorganizational deviance2 points Question 43 _____________ has been coined by sociologists to encompass serious situations occurring within entireorganization. This behavior includes police brutality and corruption.occupational deviancethe slippery slopeorganizational deviancedeviance2 pointsQuestion 44 ___________ was a New York City police officer in the 1970s who fought against corruption.Donnie BrascoFrank SerpicoJoe PistoneO.W. Wilson2 pointsQuestion 45 The ________ requires that police officers look the other way when they observe their fellow officersinvolved in acts of deviance.thin blue linecode of the streets informal handbookcode of silence2 pointsQuestion 46 ___________ can be explained as receiving money or some monetary gain for not performing a legalduty or responsibility by a police officer.organizational deviancecorruptionoccupational deviancethe slippery slope2 pointsQuestion 47 In the late 1990s, the ________________ experienced a corruption scandal that made national andinternational headlines.New York PDLos Angeles PDChicago PDPhiladelphiaPD2 pointsQuestion 48 ____________ are payments in the form of money, goods, or services that a law enforcement agentreceives for directing people, that he or she comes in contact with, toward a particular service provider.kickbackspayoffsbribesinternal payoffs2 pointsQuestion 49 In the approximately 160-year history of the NYPD a major corruption scandal seems to occurapproximately every _____ years.102015302 pointsQuestion 50 A grass eater is a officer who:does not actively seek out gratuitiesseeks out gratuitiestakes complaints to internal affairs refuses to accept gratuities2 pointsSave and SubmitClick Save and Submit to save and submit. 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